Power plant CCS report - Release Date: Feb 25th

Power Plant CCS Report

A comprehensive report on emerging CO2 sequestration technologies at power plants

There is growing concern that anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are contributing to global climate change. Therefore, it is critical to develop technologies to mitigate this problem. One very promising approach to reducing CO2 emissions is CO2 capture at power plants.

Since the Kyoto Protocol, many countries have implemented a cap and trade system to reduce CO2 emissions. Many countries are in the process of passing legislation to implement this system. In a cap and trade system, power plants and other large industries with high CO2 emissions are fined for polluting through carbon credits. In this scenario, power plants need to change their strategy to adapt to the new system. Power plants need to evaluate the different technology options being researched around the world in laboratories and the technology implemented in commercial and pilot scale in power plants around the world.

Over the years, certain mainstream CO2 capture and sequestration technologies have been accepted as being the most practical.

On the capture front, the following have gained acceptance:

  1. Pre-combustion technique for capture
  2. Oxy-fuel combustion
  3. Post-combustion capture
On transportation of the CO2, the two avenues being considered are pipeline transportation and road and/or water transporation.
On storage, the three main storage avenues being considered are:
  1. depleted oil fields (for enhanced oil recovery),
  2. saline acquifers, and
  3. coal beds (for recovery of coal bed methane)

Within these mainstream concepts, there are a number of innovations being explored. Outside of these mainstream avenues, there are novel processes and technologies being tried out. PowerPlantCCS is focussed on providing inputs and insights on these innovations - within and without the mainstream routes.

The Power Plant CCS Report evaluates the different approaches that power plant developers should consider while formulating their strategy for the future. We have studied the power plants that are implementing CCS technologies. We have gone one step further and done intensive studies on the other emerging CO2 mitigation and capture technologies that are at the forefront of technology research around the world. The report thus provides unique and critical insights on emerging topics such as

  1. Carbon capture using Algae
  2. Latest solvents & sorbents technologies
  3. Replacing coal with biomass at power plants, and
  4. Making useful products from CO2.

This report thus provides a comprehensive view on all the possible ways to mitigate CO2 emissions at power plants. .

Who should read this report?

  • Top management professionals at utility power plants and power intensive industries such as cement, iron and steel and other manufacturing and heavy engineering companies.
  • Government organizations that are keen to understand the alternatives available to existing CO2 sequestration methods
  • Consultants, turnkey implementation companies, EPCs that are providing support to this fast-growing industry
  • Scientists and researchers having a professional interest in CO2 sequestration and global warming
  • Entrepreneurs who wish to provide products and services related to this industry

Why should you read this report?

  • While there are a number of reports available on the conventional CCS technologies and processes, this is the only report that has a dominant focus on the emerging and future technologies for CCS
  • It has a clear focus on the power plant industry; thus, the insights provided and action points suggested will be highly relevant to the industry professionals
  • Owing to the extensive efforts that had been done while preparing the report, readers will be able to save months of research
  • The report has been prepared by PowerPlantCCS, the only resource that does exclusive research for CCS at power plants.

What will you know after reading this report?

  • What is the status of CCS technologies at power plants worldwide?
  • What are the latest technologies and innovations attempted for CCS at power plants?
  • What are the technical feasibilities of the various CCS technologies and process routes?
  • What are the costs associated with the various technology process routes of power plant CCS?
  • Who are the key suppliers of power plant CCS systems and solutions?
  • How much does it cost to design and construct a pilot plant for CCS at power plants?
  • What are the various government incentives and mandates that could encourage the power plant CCS industry?
  • What are the results of the various latest CCS pilot efforts conducted at power plants worldwide?
  • What should be the next steps for your power plant for the implementation of CCS?
  • What are the latest developments for CCS using the following:
    • Algae-based Carbon Capture
    • Mineral Carbonation of CO2
    • Biomass cofiring in power plants
    • Using CO2 to make various end products
  • What are the various business strategies to be followed, key success factors, mistakes to be avoided, barriers and bottlenecks?

List of Contents

Section 1 - Introduction

  • Introduction
    • 1.1 Carbon Capture and Sequestration - Definition and Description
    • 1.2 The Role of Coal in Electricity Generation and Carbon Emissions
    • 1.3 The Future of Coal
    • 1.4 The Importance of Emerging Carbon Capture and Sequestration
    • 1.5 Emissions Reduction Goals

Section 2 - Conventional CCS Technologies

  • Technology
    • 2.1 Introduction to Capture Technology
    • 2.2 Conventional Technologies
      • 2.2.1 Pre Combustion
      • 2.2.2 Post Combustion
      • 2.2.3 Oxyfuel Method
      • 2.2.4 Timeline of Development of CCS Technologies
    • 2.3 Case Studies - CCS Projects
      • 2.3.1 Pre Combustion Projects
        • FutureGen, USA
        • GreenGen, China
        • RWE , Germany
        • ZeroGen, Australia
      • 2.3.2 Post Combustion
        • AEP Alstom Mountaineer, West Virginia, USA
        • Gorgon, Australia
        • In Salah, Algeria
        • RWE npower, Tilbury, UK
      • 2.3.3 Oxyfuel Technologies
        • Compostilla, EU
        • NZEC (Near Zero Emission Coal), China
        • Total Lacq, France
        • Vattenfall Schwarze Pumpe, Germany
        • Callide A, Australia
    • 2.4 Summary and conclusions
    • 2.5 Clean Coal Technologies
      • 2.5.1 Coal Cleaning
        • Particulate Removal Systems
        • Desulfurization Systems
        • Nitrogen Oxide Reduction Systems
      • 2.5.2 Combustion Technologies in power plants
        • Sub critical pulverized coal boiler
        • Fluidized Bed Combustion
        • Supercritical Boilers and Ultra-supercritical PC Boilers
        • IGCC
      • 2.5.3 Retrofitting Existing Coal plants with CCS Technology
        • Capture-ready measures for Power Plants
        • Flue gas duct and desulfurization
        • Steam conditions
        • Upgrade of upstream flue gas cleaning equipment for CO2 capture
        • CO2 compressor design for CCS application
        • Heat recovery
        • Optimized power plant integration
        • Conclusions
    • 2.6 Costs and Performance of Conventional CCS
    • 2.7 Current Projects

    Section 3 - Future CCS Technologies

    • Emerging Technologies
      • 3.1 CCS using Algae
        • 3.1.1 Introduction to Biological Sequestration
        • 3.1.2 Description
        • 3.1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages
        • 3.1.4 Algal Species Suited for CO2 Capture of Power Plant Emissions
        • 3.1.5 Methods & Processes
        • 3.1.6 Research and Data for Algae-based CO2 Capture
        • 3.1.7 Algae-based CO2 Capture - Costs
        • 3.1.8 Algae Cultivation Coupled with CO2 from Power Plants - Q&A
        • 3.1.9 Status of Current CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies with Algae
        • 3.1.10 Latest Developments in CO2 Sequestration
        • 3.1.11 Current Projects- Case Studies
      • 3.2 Biomass Power
        • 3.2.1 Introduction
        • 3.2.2 Biomass Power - Carbon Neutral or Carbon negative ?
        • 3.2.3 Biomass sources
          • Biomass fuel characteristics
        • 3.2.4 Fuel handling and pre-treatment options in the plant
          • Drying
          • Sizing
          • Baling
          • Pelletizing
          • Briquetting
          • Washing/ Leaching
          • Torrefaction
          • Pyrolysis
          • Conclusions
        • 3.2.5 Co-firing: Biomass use in Coal power plants
          • Types of Co-firing
          • Technology and equipment
          • Cost Analysis and Return on investment
          • Advantages and Disadvantages
        • 3.2.6 Co-Firing Projects- Case Studies
          • Avedore Multi-Fuel Power Plant, Denmark
          • BioCoComb, Zeltweg, Austria
          • Tekniska Verken CHP plant, Linkoping, Sweden
          • Stora Enso Fors Ltd., Fors, Sweden
        • 3.2.7 Biomass Power Plants
          • Biomass combustion technologies
            • Furnace
            • Biomass-fired boiler
            • Direct-Fired Gas Turbine Technology
            • Gasification
          • Cost Analysis and Return on investment
          • Advantages and Disadvantages
          • Biomass Power Plants around the world
  • 3.3 Solvents and Sorbents
    • 3.3.1 Physical Absorption
      • Physical Solvents
    • 3.3.2 Chemical Absorption
      • Amine Solvents
      • Dry Chemical Absorbents
      • Aqueous ammonia
      • Mixed Chemical Physical Solvents
    • 3.3.3 Physical Adsorption
      • Regenerable Physical Adsorbents
      • Membrane based Separation
    • 3.3.4 Chemisorption
      • Metal Oxide Air Separation
      • Dry Chemical Absorbents
    • 3.3.5 Novel Capture methods & Lab Stage
      • CO2 Mineralization
      • Phase Separation
      • Cryogenics
      • CO2 Clathrate
      • Metal organic frameworks
      • Enzyme-based systems
      • Ionic liquids
      • Chemical looping combustion and gasification
    • 3.3.6 Summary and conclusions
  • 3.4 Useful Products from CO2
    • 3.4.1 Urea
    • 3.4.2 Methanol
    • 3.4.3 Ethanol
    • 3.4.4 Hydrocarbons
    • 3.4.5 Carbon Monoxide
    • 3.4.6 Plastics
    • 3.4.7 Cement
    • 3.4.8 Biomass
    • 3.4.9 Acetic Acid & Formic acid
    • 3.4.10 Biochar
    • 3.4.11 Summary and Conclusions
  • Carbon Transportation
    • 4.1 Introduction to Carbon Transportation
      • 4.1.1 Pipeline Based Transportation
        • Existing Experience
      • 4.1.2 Ships Based Transportation
        • Existing Experience
      • 4.1.3 Cost of Pipeline based transportation
      • 4.1.4 Costs of Ships Based Transportation
  • Carbon Storage
    • 5.1 Introduction to Carbon Storage
    • 5.2 Geological Storage
      • 5.2.1 Description
        • Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)
        • Deep Saline Formations
        • Un-minable Coal Seams
      • 5.2.2 Potential of Geologic Formations for Storage of Carbon
      • 5.2.3 Site Selection Criteria for Geologic Storage of Carbon
      • 5.2.4 Costs
      • 5.2.5 Recent Projects
        • The Sleipner project
        • In Salah, Algeria
    • 5.3 Mineral Storage
      • 5.3.1 Description
      • 5.3.2 Process Outlook
      • 5.3.3 Selection of Minerals
      • 5.3.4 Thermodynamics
      • 5.3.5 Process Routes
      • 5.3.6 Pre-treatment
      • 5.3.7 Direct Carbonation
      • 5.3.8 Indirect carbonation
      • 5.3.9 Advantages of Mineral Sequestration
      • 5.3.10 Disadvantages of Mineral Sequestration
      • 5.3.11 Costs
      • 5.3.12 Summary & Conclusion
    • 5.4 Ocean Storage
      • 5.4.1 Description
      • 5.4.2 Costs
      • 5.4.3 Status of Development

Section 4 - Cost of CCS

  • Economics of CCS
    • 6.1 Costs and Performance of Emerging Technologies
    • 6.2 Market Drivers for Emerging CCS Technologies
    • 6.3 Government Funding for CCS Technologies
    • 6.4 CCS Cost Forecasts for Emerging CCS Technologies
    • 6.5 CCS Price and Revenue Estimates for Emerging CCS Technologies
    • 6.6 Explanation of Forecasts

Section 5 - Key companies in the CCS value chain

  • Key Industry Players
    • 7.1 Key Players in Emerging CCS Technologies
    • 7.2 Energy Companies
    • 7.3 Technology Developers
    • 7.4 Engineering Firms and Manufacturers
    • 7.5 Oilfield Services Companies
    National Missions
    • 8.1 National Missions Based on Emerging CCS Technologies
    • 8.2 Coal 21 - An Australian Initiative
    • 8.3 Chinese Clean Coal Initiative
    • 8.4 The Sleipner Project

Buying the Report

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About PowerPlantCCS

PowerPlantCCS is the leading intelligence provider for the global efforts at carbon capture and sequestration at power plants. It was started with the objective of providing the latest inputs on innovations and novel ideas being attempted for CO2 sequestration at power plants.

The PowerPlantCCS team works out of Chennai, India. It is part of Clixoo ( www.clixoo.com ), a company focussed on providing support solutions for the global sustainability industry.