Mineral sequestration-process outlook
The carbonation reactions involved do not principally differ between the process layouts. Studies into in-situ mineral carbonation are mostly carried out as part of the research into the long-term consequences of geological carbon dioxide storage.
According to the ex-situ processes, the report describes only end-of pipe technologies. Most research is directed towards an industrial process. In this process CO2 is artificially sequestrated in a controlled way. Another option is to spread out grinded reactive compounds and to allow it react with atmospheric carbon dioxide with the help of rain (Schuiling, 2002). A possible advantage of this approach could be lower sequestration costs, but important disadvantages are the slow reaction and the occupation of land.
Mineral CO2 sequestration (NETL, 2001)
Main players in this research field are the Japanese Research Institute for Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) and the United States National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The latter institute co-ordinates a research programme of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), in which the Albany Research Centre, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Arizona State University and Science Applications International Corporation participate. This so-called 'mineral sequestration working group' aims at the design and construction of 10MW equivalent demonstration plant in 2008 (Goldberg et al., 2002). LANL is also part of the Zero Emission Coal Alliance (ZECA), an international consortium of research institutes and private companies, which studies integrated concepts for efficient coal-based power generation and mineral carbon sequestration. Other research efforts are made by, for example, the Shell Research Centre Amsterdam, the Seikei University of Tokyo, the Columbia University and the Helsinki University of Technology.