Conventional Carbon Capture and Storage or geosequestration involves capturing and purifying carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, compressing it, transporting it to a suitable site and injecting it into deep geological formations where it will be trapped for millions of years. While the concept of geosequestration of carbon dioxide as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere has arisen only in the past decade or so, geosequestration utilizes technologies that have been widely practiced in the oil and gas industry for many years. The first step in geosequestration is separating the carbon dioxide from other gases in the exhaust stream and in the process capturing the carbon dioxide. Carbon capture or separation of carbon dioxide from the flue gases of power plants in conventional CCS is done with the help of solvents, scrubbers or sorbents. A lot of research is being done in this area.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and capture ready power plant designs are becoming increasingly important for the evaluation of investments into new power plants and in addition retrofit solutions for the existing power plants are required.
The major development efforts are directed towards the selection and improvement of solvents, process design and the integration of the capture unit into the power plant.
Currently, the capture and geologic storage of CO2 is one of the most immediate and viable strategies for mitigating the release of CO2 into the atmosphere.